Summary by Utah Sports and Wellness
Link to Original Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33740420/
- Cell Metabolism
- Volume 33 – May 2021
- Department of Clinical Sciences at Karolinska Institute
- Increased exercise amount over time
Exercise training positively affects metabolic health through increased glucose regulation:
- Mitochondria are the primary source of cellular ATP synthesis.
- The size and function of the mitochondrial pool are vital for metabolic health and muscular function.
- Mitochondrial capacity is a strong proxy for metabolic function and health.
- In many pathological states, mitochondria display a reduced ability to respond to nutrient supply.
Acute exercise increases the total Nrf2 protein within minutes:
- Nfr2 is the master regulator of several hundred genes involved in the antioxidant defense.
- Exercise training has proven to be a powerful tool to act as a preventative treatment against many metabolic disorders by stimulating glucose uptake.
- Extreme amounts of exercise have been associated with negative effects on cardiac health.
- In competitive sports, it is established exercise improves performance, whereas too much training leads to staleness and reduced performance.
- There is a bell-shaped relationship between exercise training load and mitochondrial function.
These authors also note:
- After the recovery phase, when training load is drastically reduced, performance peaks.
- Mitochondrial function is an important determinant of insulin sensitivity.
- Mitochondrial impairment is associated with impaired glucose tolerance.
- Also assessed were the continuous blood glucose profiles in world-class endurance athletes. They had impaired glucose control compared with a matched control group.